Environmental risk assessment of inter-well partitioning tracer compounds shortlisted for the offshore oil and gas industry was written by Vora, Mehul;Gamlem Njau, John-Sigvard;Sanni, Steinar;Flage, Roger. And the article was included in Energy Exploration & Exploitation in 2022.Computed Properties of C8H10O2 This article mentions the following:
Quantifying residual oil saturation (SOR) in the inter-well region of oil and gas reservoirs is key for successfully implementing EOR solutions Partitioning inter-well tracer tests (PITTs) has become a common method for quantifying SOR. A new group of seven chems. – pyridine, 2,3-di-Me pyrazine, 2,6-di-Me pyrazine, 4-methoxybenzyl alc., 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alc., 4-chlorobenzyl alc., and 2,6-dichlorobenzyl alc. – have been proposed as potential partitioning tracers for quantifying SOR. Using these tracers can lead to their environmental release in the marine environment through produced water discharges, with currently limited knowledge on impacts in the marine ecosystem. The primary objective of the present study is to assess the environmental risk of discharging the tracer compounds in the marine environment. We investigated the fate and effect of these tracers in the marine environment. Biodegradability in seawater was measured to understand the fate of tracers in the marine environment. The acute toxicity of tracers was measured in terms of the percent cell viability of a rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) and growth inhibition of the algae Skeletonema costatum. The ecotoxicol. information obtained from these experiments was used in the dynamic risk and effects assessment model (DREAM) to calculate the tracers contribution to the environmental impact factor (EIF). The results from the DREAM simulations suggest no contribution towards EIF values from any of the tracers at the expected back-produced concentrations Results from simulations at higher concentrations suggest that both pyrazines have the lowest environmental risk, followed by 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alc., 4-methoxybenzyl alc., and pyridine; while both chlorobenzyl alcs. show the highest environmental risk. In the experiment, the researchers used many compounds, for example, (4-Methoxyphenyl)methanol (cas: 105-13-5Computed Properties of C8H10O2).
(4-Methoxyphenyl)methanol (cas: 105-13-5) belongs to ethers. Of all the functional groups, ethers are the least reactive ones. Ether bonds are quite stable towards bases, oxidizing agents and reducing agents. But on the other hand, ethers undergo cleavage by reaction with acids. The unique properties of ethers (i.e., that they are strongly polar, with nonbonding electron pairs but no hydroxyl group) enhance the formation and use of many reagents. For example, Grignard reagents cannot form unless an ether is present to share its lone pair of electrons with the magnesium atom. Complexation of the magnesium atom stabilizes the Grignard reagent and helps to keep it in solution.Computed Properties of C8H10O2